This set of Read.Inquire.Write. disciplinary literacy tools prepares students to write counterarguments - arguments in support of an interpretation of the sources that include consideration and rebuttal of an alternative interpretation. These tools are designed to engage all students in analytical reading and argument writing, while developing disciplinary language and thinking in history and social sciences. The disciplinary literacy tools are embedded within our investigations, but can be used with other topics and materials to create a structured process for inquiry and argument writing.

  • The Bookmark supports students' reading and analysis of sources.
  • The Weigh the Evidence chart supports thinking across sources and drawing evidence-based conclusions through discussion.
  • Mentor Texts provide models of the kind of arguments students will write.
  • Useful Language lists offer language choices that are particular to the disciplinary work involved in social studies argument writing.
  • The Planning Graphic Organizer supports students in organizing their ideas into a coherent argument.
  • The Reflection Guide reminds students about the core features of argument writing and supports students in setting goals.

Note: These tools are embedded in the student packet and slides for each investigation, but a template of each tool is included on the pages above.

Learn more about how our Disciplinary Literacy Tools support English Learners.

Disciplinary Literacy Tools